In my book How to Build Your Baby’s Brain, I tell parents about childhood’s developmental stages so they can positively affect them. You can only have reasonable expectations from a child that is capable of meeting those developmental markers.
So when it comes to discipline, know your child, and consider his age when deciding on appropriate discipline.
For example, a toddler doesn’t have a good sense of space or time, so any punishment lasting more than a few minutes is counter-intuitive. Not only would your toddler not remember his offense, but he may become agitated over the impact of a long punishment.
On the other hand, disciplining an adolescent with one week of grounding, but never more, may be beneficial. Punishment and consequences should have a beginning, a middle, and an end, so that your child is taught a new way of behaving, rather than being trained like a puppy or a horse. Remember: you’re teaching a lesson, not breaking your child’s will.
Further, when disciplining your child, it is important to know his maturation level. Be careful not to be fooled by strong language skills… they don’t necessarily mean maturity. As a parent, you must function as a guide, helping your child traverse the minefields of socialization.
Because your child is a child, your goal is to guide him towards making good choices, good decisions, good behavior, self-discipline, and ultimately, self-management. Use my Empathic Process to invest your child mutually into your discipline model. This can make him your partner and ally, teaching him both empathy and problem-solving.
Recognize your child’s specific, individual needs. One size of parenting does not fit all. If your child has a learning problem, your discipline model should accommodate it. For example, if your child is hyperactive, has problems focusing or staying on point, it is important for you to be the gentle, steady hand that monitors him and brings him back to his work, whether that includes chores around the house or homework.
The punishment should always fit the crime. Teaching your child problem-solving is more important than punishing him. My Empathic Process, a model of communication without defense, will give your child a sense of himself, his own ability, and self-power to work his way through any problem. By teaching your child to communicate his feelings and investing him in the process of his own discipline and consequences, you help him become self-actualized. In a sense, you are giving him skin in the game, and thus, he is more likely to follow your mutual discipline approach.
Practice and rehearse new behavior to create a new habit. If your child is disciplined too harshly or for an extended period, he will forget the cause of his crime, but he will forever remember his resentment. This can be counter-productive, as you are no longer teaching a new behavior but creating a new problem.
Moreover, a young child who’s punished too severely, or for too long, may personalize his offense and feel that there is something wrong with him, that he is a “bad boy”; remember, you cannot affect behavior successfully by causing shame or fear. And, be cautious not to do something you can’t take back. For example, never cause your child to miss a special event, either at school or home, as punishment.
In the final analysis, what you want to teach your child is to “know the rules.” Then, give him the positive incentives necessary to self-manage and behave appropriately. Positive reinforcement, rewards, and privileges will ultimately teach your child to exhibit good behavior, not because of the fear of punishment, but rather for the intrinsic feeling and value of doing something good for its own sake.