Last week, I explored how active procrastination is different from passive procrastination and can actually benefit our creativity (Click here to read the previous article). Based on the comments, our audience were generally excited and curious to learn about this concept of active procrastination. Some saw the potential benefits and yet encouraged us not to take procrastination (passive/active) as an excuse on a daily basis; some were curious about how we can quickly and smartly judge priority levels of myriad of daily tasks in order to manage time with more adaptability and fluidity. I will be exploring those questions further in future articles.

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For this week, I will dig deeper to see what exactly do active procrastinators do and prefer, so we can have a much clearer idea about active procrastination. Choi & Moran (2009) researched and published the New Active Procrastination Scale (NAPS). Please allow me to present to you the actual scale and explain how you can self-assess your AP capability.

The New Active Procrastination Scale (NAPS).


  1. Please rate your tendency from 1 to 5. 1 refers to “strongly disagree” and 5 refers to “strongly agree.”
  2. Once you have circled your answers, please calculate an average score for each of the four sections. For example under section Outcome Satisfaction, If you scored 4,3,5,1 for the four questions, your average score is (4+3+5+1)/4=3.25.
  3. To assess your AP tendency, for the Outcome Satisfaction, the lower your average scores, the more AP you are; for Preference for Pressure, the lower your average scores, the more AP you are; for Intentional Decision, the higher your average scores, the more AP you are; for Ability to meet Deadline, the lower your average scores, the more AP you are.
  4. Remember, it is just a tentative assessment, if you find out that you are not as AP as you thought or hoped, don’t worry. You just lost one excuse for being procrastinating and that’s not a big deal. People are different, just respect your style and try to actively procrastinate according to your characters and preferences. Or you can also decide that AP is not for you. That is perfect as well.


Outcome Satisfaction

My performance tends to suffer when I have to race against deadlines. 12345

I don’t do well if I have to rush through a task. 12345

If I put things off until the last moment, I’m not satisfied with their outcomes. 12345

I achieve better results if I complete a task at a slower pace, well ahead of a deadline. 12345

Preference for Pressure

It’s really a pain for me to work under upcoming deadlines. 12345

I’m upset and reluctant to act when I’m forced to work under pressure. 12345

I feel tense and cannot concentrate when there’s too much time pressure on me. 12345

I’m frustrated when I have to rush to meet deadlines. 12345

Intentional Decision

To use my time more efficiently, I deliberately postpone some tasks. 12345

I intentionally put off work to maximize my motivation. 12345

In order to make better use of my time, I intentionally put off some tasks. 12345

I finish most of my assignments right before deadlines because I choose to do so. 12345

Ability to meet Deadline

I often start things at the last minute and find it difficult to complete the deadlines on time. 12345

I often fail to accomplish goals that I set for myself. 12345

I’m often running late when getting things done. 12345

I have difficulty finishing activities once I start them. 12345


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Congratulations for taking the time to learn about yourself a bit more today. I always see each and every person as individual and inter-dependent planet, filled with mystery and waiting for ourselves to explore. Hope this small exercise can bring more clarity in your daily life.

In future articles, I will be exploring “creativity metrics,” “creative pressure coping,” “fluid time management,” “adaptive rumination,” “prioritization decision chart,” “the art of good questions,” “creativity & fears,” “creativity & happiness,” “creativity and mindfulness,” “how to enhance creativity,” and “creativity and the corporate world.” If you want to suggest some topics of creativity, please feel free to leave in the comment below.


Choi, J. N., & Moran, S. V. (2009). Why not procrastinate? Development and validation of a new active procrastination scale. The Journal of social psychology, 149(2), 195-212.


  • Jiani Wu

    Creativity Consultant, Ed.D. Educational Media & Technology

    Since childhood, I love to collaborate with people and media to enhance social connections and facilitate learning. My curiosity has led me to many adventures, whether being a TV hostess, a reporter, a D2D sales, a product manager, or a doctorate in EdTech. My persistence has helped me along the way to complete challenging goals I set for myself. I aspire to continue this journey and contribute my creativity, expertise, skills, and passion toward an organization with a mission to better human learning experience through technology and innovation.